The Supreme Court of India is the apex court in India. It is a constitutional body as laid down by Part V of the Chapter V of the Constitution of India. It was founded on 26 January 1950.
Articles 124 to 147 of the Indian Constitution delineate the constitution and legal authority of the Supreme Court of India. In terms of legal relief, the Supreme Court of India is principally the only remaining option and uppermost court of appeal which listens to appeals in opposition to verdicts of the High Courts of the union territories and states.
However, the apex court of India deals with written appeals with regards to incidents of severe human rights violations or if a case entails a crucial matter that requires instant settlement as well. The apex court of the country conducted its opening session on 28 January 1950. From that phase, the apex court has delivered over 24,000 reported verdicts.
The apex court of India consists of the Chief Justice of India and not above 30 other judges designated by the President of India. Nevertheless, the President should designate the judges by discussion with the apex court. The appointments are usually conducted according to senior status and not political inclination. The retirement age of Supreme Court judges is 65 years.
Formation of the Apex Court of India
On 28 January 1950, two days past the day when India turned into an independent and autonomous nation, the Supreme Court of India came into existence. The opening ceremony was organized in the Chamber of Princes in the Parliament premises. For an extensive period of 12 years (from 1937 - 1950), the Chamber of Princes was used as the bench of the Judicature of India and also the Supreme Court up to the time when the apex court of India obtained its current building in 1958.
Following its opening ceremony on 28 January 1950, the apex court of the country commenced its hearings in the Chamber of Princes in the Parliament House. The court shifted into the current premise in 1958. The bar association of the apex court is known as the Supreme Court Bar Association. Presently, the chairperson of the Supreme Court Bar Association is Mr. Pravin Parekh and the Honorary Secretary of the body is Mr. Sanjay Bansal.
Where is Supreme Court of India located?
The Supreme Court of India is situated in New Delhi, the capital of India.
Present Chief Justice of India
Justice HL Dattu is the current and the 42nd Chief Justice of India. He took over from Justice (retd) Rajendra Mal Lodha, who headed the apex court for about six months. Justice Dattu will have tenure of about one year and two months and will retire on 2 December 2015.
High courts come under jurisdiction of Supreme Court of India
Following is the list of the 24 high courts of India:
- Hyderabad High Court (Andhra Pradesh and Telangana)
- Allahabad High Court (Uttar Pradesh)
- Bombay High Court (Maharashtra)
- Calcutta High Court (West Bengal)
- Chhattisgarh High Court
- Delhi High Court
- Gujarat High Court
- Gauhati High Court (Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh)
- Himachal Pradesh High Court
- Jammu & Kashmir High Court
- Jharkhand High Court
- Karnataka High Court
- Kerala High Court
- Madras High Court (Tamil Nadu)
- Madhya Pradesh High Court
- Meghalaya High Court
- Manipur High Court
- Orissa High Court
- Patna High Court (Bihar)
- Punjab and Haryana High Court
- Rajasthan High Court
- Sikkim High Court
- Uttarakhand High Court
- Tripura High Court
District Courts and Tribunals
Other than the aforementioned high courts, the following district courts and tribunals operate under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India:
- District Court Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh
- District Court Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh
- District Court Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
- District Court Chandigarh
- Jodhpur District Court, Rajasthan
- Delhi District Court, Delhi
- District Court Kanpur Dehat, Uttar Pradesh
- Nagaon District Judiciary, Assam
- District Court Raipur, Chhattisgarh
- Etawah Districts and Sessions Court, Uttar Pradesh
- Nainital District Court, Uttarakhand
- District Court Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
- Appellate Tribunal for Electricity
- AP Administrative Tribunal
- Central Administrative Tribunal
- Central Excise Service Tax Appellate Tribunal
- Debt Recovery Tribunal, Coimbatore
- Debts Recovery Tribunal-I, Chennai
- Debts Recovery Tribunal-II, Chennai
- Railway Claims Tribunal
- Intellectual Property Appellate Tribunal, Chennai
- Income Tax Appellate Tribunal.
In which areas did the Supreme Court of India deliver landmark verdicts?
The apex court of India has delivered landmark verdicts in the following areas:
- Land reforms
- Bank Nationalization Bill (1969)
What is the eligibility of becoming a Supreme Court Judge?
In order to become a judge of the Supreme Court of India, an individual has to be a citizen of India. He also should have served as a Judge of a High Court or of two or more similar courts for a minimum period of five years in a row, or an Advocate of a High Court or of two or more similar courts in a row for a minimum period of 10 years. According to the judgment of the President, an eminent legal scholar or expert can also be appointed as a Judge of the Supreme Court. Stipulations are there for the recruitment of a Judge of a High Court as an impromptu justice of the apex court and for retired judges of the apex court or High Courts to be seated and function as justices of that court.
What is the contact address of Supreme Court of India?
The contact details of the Supreme Court of India are as follows:
- The Registrar
Supreme Court of India
New Delhi - 110 001 (India)
PABX Nos: 23388942-44, .23388922-24
FAX Nos: 23381584, 23381508, 23384533, 23384336, 23384447
Reference: Ministry of Law and Justice
Last Updated on : September 29, 2014