The state of Uttar Pradesh, like every other state and Union Territory of India, will shortly hit the crucial Lok Sabha polls to elect the sixteenth session of the parliamentary term.
Constitutionally, the incumbent Lok Sabha session of the Parliament will come to an end on 31 May 2014, giving way for a new session. Situated in the northern parts of the country, this state of Uttar Pradesh has a total of 80 Lok Sabha constituencies allotted to it. Uttar Pradesh holds a deciding position in the context of the vital general polls, being the largest Indian state in terms of number of seats. Therefore, it is with much interest that the nation watches the election mood of this state.
Three opinion polls were held in January 2014 to gauge the mood of the public for the 2014 General elections. The results of these polls are:
Campaigning Strategies in UP
- Comparing the political parties on the Number Game: The survey conducted by CSDS in Delhi, in collaboration with CNN-IBN and Lokniti predicted the Congress to win 11 to 15 seats. A more recent survey conducted by India TV predicted a more cursed figure of merely 5 seats. In a survey organized by the ABP News and Nielsen, the Congress was estimated to bag not more than 12 constituencies in the state. These figures indicate a loss of more than double the seats for the Congress, compared with the incumbent session.
In comparison, the BJP emerges victorious, bagging somewhere between 25 to 50 seats. The CSDS survey showed a whopping figure of 41-49 seats in favour of the BJP, followed closely by the ABP News-Nielsen opinion poll, which indicated a 35-seat mark. As a coalition, the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) was predicted to bag more seats than the majority, thus coming to power in the Centre. The Bahujan Samaj Party, in comparison to the Samajwadi Party, was predicted to perform better, winning between 10 to 30 seats, the range being the collective result of the three surveys. While the remaining two surveys show the BSP gaining on the SP, the Indian TV survey indicated that the Samajwadi Party would bag the maximum count of 25 seats alone.
- Choice of Prime Minister: In the choice of Prime Minister, all voices echoed the name of Narendra Modi. In comparison, only a handful of people wanted to see Rahul Gandhi as the Prime Minister of the country.
- Rural support of the Congress dwindling?: The Congress has traditionally been able to hold its sway specifically in the state of Uttar Pradesh, owing to its massive support among the masses in the rural areas of the state. What comes as a cause for deep introspection within the party is its rapid loss of support not only in the urban areas, but in the rural areas too. The CSDS survey, in particular, pointed out that the Congress got only 26% support in the rural areas, compared with 34% bagged by the BJP. The BJP would get 9% more support compared with last elections.
- Grim fate of the Congress in UP : According to opinion polls, the UPA regime, led by the Congress, stood a near-impossible chance of bagging the magic figure in the Lok Sabha. In the context of Uttar Pradesh, these depictions and opinion polls have been all the more decisive as this state is a popular vote-bank bastion of the Congress, spanning across decades in independent India. The Rae Bareili and Amethi Lok Sabha seats in the state are synonymous to their representatives - Congress President Sonia Gandhi and Congress Vice-President Rahul Gandhi, respectively. However, the opinion polls already indicated a rather grim reality looming large on the Congress.
Major Political Parties in UP
- Congress: In addressing the masses in the state, Rahul Gandhi reiterated, time and again why the Congress should continue its rule not only the state but the politics of the nation as a whole. Priding itself on the RTI and the recently implemented Food Security Bill, Rahul Gandhi emphasised the Congress's attention to laws and governance in the state, which has in turn, positively affected millions of people, especially the poor of the country. Not only the Congress top rank, including Sonia and Rahul, but each Congress member in the state was of the opinion that the Congress rule has established a stable GDP and an increasing economic security, through one of its "largest social welfare schemes in the world", the MNREGA.
- BJP: The BJP, on the other hand, in its campaigning agendas, zeroed in on two vital aspects to critique the ruling government - firstly, its heightened corruption, including multiple scams involving Congress ministers and leaders who have been reported against in the last 10 years; and secondly, the most pressing issues of price rise, which as the BJP believes, and the country echoes, has led to making lives of Indians difficult. The most pertinent of such outrageous levels of price rise was the recent trend in onion prices which took the whole country by shock.
- AAP: The state of UP had a new twist in the tale, as far as the election propaganda and campaigning strategies were concerned. A new entrant to the political scene in the state was the nascent AAP, which has apparently expanded its hold in this northern Indian state.
- SP and BSP: The SP and BSP forged a non-communal, non-Congress campaigning strategy in the state of Uttar Pradesh, catering to the minorities in specific. In fact, the SP supremo Mulayam Singh was garnering support to form a Third Front of all secular leaders in the country.
The major political parties in the state of Uttar Pradesh are the Indian National Congress (INC), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and the Samajwadi Party (SP). Other less prominent political parties contributing to the political ambience in the state are the Rashtriya Lok Dal (RLD) and the Communist Party of India (CPI).
Election Commission of Uttar Pradesh
Responsible for organising free and fair elections to all government bodies and government civic institutions like the municipalities, the zilla panchayats, the parishads and the corporations, the Election Commission of Uttar Pradesh is the highest body during the elections. The State Election Commission of Uttar Pradesh was constituted by the UP State Government in 1994. The role of the Election Commission of Uttar Pradesh is to maintain maximum transparency in the elections. The State Election Commission of UP is preparing for the upcoming polls by reaching out to the people of Uttar Pradesh to ensure better services in terms of Electoral Rolls, issuing valid Electors' Photo Identity Cards (EPIC), digitising maps to indicate areas of the polling stations and their respective distances, and ensuring thorough verification, scrutinisation and correction of the EPIC cards and list of electoral rolls (spelling mistakes, mistakes in birth date, etc.). Providing sufficient manpower and material resources on the day of the elections and enforcing a model code of conduct to be followed by all voters is an integral role of the EC during the elections.
Chief Electoral Officer (CEO) of UP
According to the Representation of the People's Acts 1950 and 1951, the state of UP, like every other state of India, must be provided with a Chief Electoral Officer during the State Assembly elections as well as the general elections. A Chief Electoral Officer (CEO) functions under the supervision, control and overall guidance of the Election Commission of India. The present CEO of Uttar Pradesh is Umesh Sinha. Sinha replaced Anuj Kumar Bishnoi to the post in 2009. Sinha believes that elections are not an isolated event, but demand a holistic approach towards the successes of democracy. Sinha plays a significant role in supervising the work of the EC of the state, such that the rights of the voters as guaranteed under the Indian Constitution are maintained. An IAS from the batch of 1986, Sinha has been working to ensure that political parties are not able to influence the elections in the state of UP.
Uttar Pradesh Lok Sabha History
Uttar Pradesh, which was reorganised from the United Provinces of colonial India, as per the Representation of the People Act of 1950, has a fairly complex electoral history, owing to the presence of varied religious and minority communities in the state.
In the 15 Lok Sabha session, out of the 80 parliamentary seats which are represented, the Samajwadi Party has bagged the maximum number of seats (23) while the Congress got 21. Twenty out of the 80 Lok Sabha constituencies were won by the BSP. Though the NDA coalition together won 15 seats, the BJP alone won 10 Lok Sabha constituencies in the state, while the RLD won 5. One independent candidate, Kalyan Singh, won from the Etah constituency of the state.
From the first general elections held in this state in 1951, the Congress has followed a historic legacy of winning the maximum number of seats from this state. Increasingly however, both the BSP and the SP have been performing exceptionally well by playing along an anti-communal, pro-minority sentiment in the state, and thus garnering support of the marginalised sections of the society, namely the SCs, the STs and the Muslims. The BJP had, till sometime back, not found much voice among the different communities of the state, owing to its deeply-entrenched communal ideology. However, the 2009 elections proved to be a turning point in the history of the UP elections, where the BJP gained a stable foothold. This was squarely due to the split in the Muslim votes away from SP to the Congress.
The number of parliamentary constituencies won by the Indian National Congress in the consecutive general elections in UP are as follows:
- Won 81 parliamentary constituencies in the 1st Lok Sabha elections held in 1951
- Won 70 parliamentary constituencies in the 2nd Lok Sabha election held in 1957
- Won 62 parliamentary constituencies in the 3rd Lok Sabha election held in 1962
- Won 47 parliamentary constituencies in the 4th Lok Sabha election held in 1967
- Won 73 parliamentary constituencies in the 5th Lok Sabha election held in 1973
- Won no parliamentary constituencies in the 6th Lok Sabha election held in 1977
- Won 51 parliamentary constituencies in the 7th Lok Sabha election held in 1980
- Won 83 parliamentary constituencies in the 8th Lok Sabha election held in 1984
- Won 15 parliamentary constituencies in the 9th Lok Sabha election held in 1989
- Won 5 parliamentary constituencies in the 10th Lok Sabha election held in 1991
- Won 5 parliamentary constituencies in the 11th Lok Sabha election held in 1996
- Won no parliamentary constituencies in the 12th Lok Sabha election held in 1998
- Won 10 parliamentary constituencies in the 13th Lok Sabha election held in 1999
- Won 9 parliamentary constituencies in the 14th Lok Sabha election held in 2004
- Won 21 parliamentary constituencies in the 15th Lok Sabha election held in 2009
The number of parliamentary constituencies won by the BSP in the consecutive general elections in UP are as follows:
- Won 2 parliamentary constituencies in the 9th Lok Sabha election held in 1989
- Won 1 parliamentary constituency in the 10th Lok Sabha election held in 1991
- Won 6 parliamentary constituencies in the 11th Lok Sabha election held in 1996
- Won 4 parliamentary constituencies in the 12th Lok Sabha election held in 1998
- Won 14 parliamentary constituencies in the 13th Lok Sabha election held in 1999
- Won 19 parliamentary constituencies in the 14th Lok Sabha election held in 2004
- Won 20 parliamentary constituencies in the 15th Lok Sabha election held in 2009
The number of parliamentary constituencies won by the BJP in the consecutive general elections in UP are as follows:
- Won 8 parliamentary constituencies in the 9th Lok Sabha election held in 1989
- Won 51 parliamentary constituencies in the 10th Lok Sabha election held in 1991
- Won 52 parliamentary constituencies in the 11th Lok Sabha election held in 1996
- Won 57 parliamentary constituencies in the 12th Lok Sabha election held in 1998
- Won 29 parliamentary constituencies in the 13th Lok Sabha election held in 1999
- Won 10 parliamentary constituencies in the 14th Lok Sabha election held in 2004
- Won 10 parliamentary constituencies in the 15th Lok Sabha election held in 2009
The number of parliamentary constituencies won by the SP in the consecutive general elections in UP are as follows:
- Won 16 parliamentary constituencies in the 11th Lok Sabha election held in 1996
- Won 20 parliamentary constituencies in the 12th Lok Sabha election held in 1998
- Won 26 parliamentary constituencies in the 13th Lok Sabha election held in 1999
- Won 35 parliamentary constituencies in the 14th Lok Sabha election held in 2004
- Won 23 parliamentary constituencies in the 15th Lok Sabha election held in 2009
No. of PCs : 80
No. of Polling Days : 6
Polling Dates : 10 April (Phase 3), 17 April (Phase 5), 24 April (Phase 6), 30 April (Phase 7), 07 May (Phase 8), 12 May (Phase 9)
No. of Polling Stations : 1,40,259
No. of Polling Station locations : 89399
Total Electors : 13,43,51,302 (as on 8th March 2014)
Electors in Age Group 18 to 25 years : 17.27%
Women Electors : 44.57%
Poll Expenditure Limit per Candidate : Rs.70 lakhs
Uttar Pradesh Parliamentary Constituency Winners 2009
|PC No.||PC Name||Category||Winning Candidate||Gender||Party||Total Votes|
|1||Saharanpur||GEN||Jagdish Singh Rana||M||BSP||354807|
|4||Bijnor||GEN||Sanjay Singh Chauhan||M||RLD||244587|
|7||Rampur||GEN||Jaya Prada Nahata||F||SP||230724|
|8||Sambhal||GEN||Dr. Shafiqur Rahman Barq||M||BSP||207422|
|13||Gautam Buddha Nagar||GEN||Surendra Singh Nagar||M||BSP||245613|
|15||Aligarh||GEN||Raj Kumari Chauhan||F||BSP||193444|
|19||Fatehpur Sikri||GEN||Seema Upadhyay||F||BSP||209466|
|20||Firozabad||GEN||Raj Babbar ||M||INC||287011|
|21||Mainpuri||GEN||Mulayam Singh Yadav||M||SP||392308|
|22||Etah||GEN||Kalyan Singh R O Madholi||M||IND||275717|
|25||Bareilly||GEN||Praveen Singh Aron||M||INC||220976|
|26||Pilibhit||GEN||Feroze Varun Gandhi||M||BJP||419539|
|28||Kheri||GEN||Zafar Ali Naqvi||M||INC||184982|
|29||Dhaurahra||GEN||Kunwar Jitin Prasad||M||INC||391391|
|32||Misrikh||(SC)||Ashok Kumar Rawat||M||BSP||207627|
|35||Lucknow||GEN||Lal Ji Tandon||M||BJP||204028|
|36||Rae Bareli||GEN||Sonia Gandhi||F||INC||481490|
|39||Pratapgarh||GEN||Rajkumari Ratna Singh||F||INC||169137|
|46||Jhansi||GEN||Pradeep Kumar Jain (Aditya)||M||INC||252712|
|47||Hamirpur||GEN||Vijay Bahadur Singh||M||BSP||199143|
|48||Banda||GEN||R. K. Singh Patel||M||SP||240948|
|51||Phulpur||GEN||Kapil Muni Karwariya||M||BSP||167542|
|52||Allahabad||GEN||Kunwar Rewati Raman Singh||M||SP||209431|
|55||Ambedkar Nagar||GEN||Rakesh Pandey||M||BSP||259487|
|57||Kaiserganj||GEN||Brijbhushan Sharan Singh||M||SP||196063|
|58||Shrawasti||GEN||Vinay Kumar Alias Vinnu||M||INC||201556|
|59||Gonda||GEN||Beni Prasad Verma||M||INC||155675|
|61||Basti||GEN||Arvind Kumar Chaudhary||M||BSP||268666|
|62||Sant Kabir Nagar||GEN||Bhisma Shankar Alias Kushal Tiwari||M||BSP||211043|
|65||Kushi Nagar||GEN||Ku. Ratanjeet Pratap Narayan Singh||M||INC||223954|
|66||Deoria||GEN||Gorakh Prasad Jaiswal||M||BSP||219889|
|70||Ghosi||GEN||Dara Singh Chauhan||M||BSP||220695|
|75||Ghazipur||GEN||Radhey Mohan Singh||M||SP||379233|
|77||Varanasi||GEN||Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi||M||BJP||203122|
|79||Mirzapur||GEN||Bal Kumar Patel||M||SP||218898|
||Parliamentary Constituencies in Uttar Pradesh
Last Updated on : September 12, 2014